With less working memory than adults, young children typically have a memory span of 2-3 numerical digits, while adults can repeat 6 or more. By age 9 or 10, children use rehearsal, elaboration, and organization to increase memory retention.


1. Metacognition - the ability to think about thinking

2. Metamemory - the ability to reflect on memory as a process

3. Infantile amnesia - the lack of memories earlier than the first three years of life, generally experienced by children and adults

4. Giftedness - possession of advanced metacognitive skills and the ability to select, evaluate, and apply cognitive strategies. Gifted children have mild elevations in self-concepts